musha Horror MabhukuFiction Horror Pride Mwedzi: 'Dracula' & Iyo Isingarambike Queerness yaBram Stoker

Horror Pride Mwedzi: 'Dracula' & Iyo Isingarambike Queerness yaBram Stoker

by Waylon Jordan
1,486 maonero
Bram stoker dracula

Pane nguva panguva yekudada Mwedzi kuHorror kwandinoziva kuti vanhu vari kuzondifuratira zvachose. Zvino pane dzimwe nguva pandinorova hura uye kugadzirira iyo yekumashure. Pandinonyora musoro wenyaya ino nezve Dracula- imwe yenyaya dzangu dzinodakadza dzese-zvakanaka, ngatitii zviono zvaKurt Russell naBilly Baldwin vari kutamba mumusoro mangu.

Saka, pano enda…

Mumakore angangoita 125 kubvira Dracula yakatanga kuburitswa, isu takadzidza zvakawanda pamusoro pedu uye nezvemurume akanyora ingangove yakakurumbira vampire novel yenguva dzese, uye chokwadi ndechekuti, Bram Stoker aive murume akapedza yakawanda yehupenyu hwake hwevakuru achinetsekana nevamwe varume .

Ratidza A: Walt Whitman

Paaive aine makore makumi maviri nemana ekuberekwa, wechidiki Stoker akanyora angave ari mamwe etsamba dzinonyanya kufadza dzandakaverenga ini kumenzwi wemuAmerica Walt Whitman. Zvakatanga seizvi:

Kana iwe uri murume wandinokutora kuva iwe uchafarira kuwana tsamba iyi. Kana usiri ini handina basa nekuti unozvida kana kuti kwete uye ndokumbira chete kuti uzviise mumoto usina kuverenga kumberi. Asi ndinotenda kuti uchaifarira. Handifunge kuti pane murume ari kurarama, kunyangwe iwe uri pamusoro pekusarura kwekirasi yevarume vane pfungwa diki, vasingade kuwana tsamba kubva kumurume mudiki, mutorwa, pasirese - murume Kugara mumhepo yakasarudzika kuchokwadi chaunoimba uye maitiro ako ekuzviimba.

Stoker aizoenderera mberi achitaura nezvechishuwo chake chekutaura kuna Whitman sezvinoita vadetembi, vachimudana kuti “tenzi,” uye achiti aigodora uye airatidzika kunge aitya rusununguko rwakaita nemunyori mukuru hupenyu hwake. Uye pakupedzisira anopedzisa neiyi nzira:

Zvinotapira sei chinhu kune murume akasimba ane hutano ane ziso remukadzi uye chishuwo chemwana kuti anzwe kuti anogona kutaura nemurume anogona kuve kana achida baba, uye hama nemukadzi kumweya wake. Handifunge kuti uchaseka, Walt Whitman, kana kundizvidza, asi pazviitiko zvese ndinokutendai nerudo rwese netsitsi zvamakandipa zvakafanana nerudzi rwangu.

Hakusi kusvetuka kwepfungwa yekufunga kuti Stoker angave akarevei ne "rudzi rwangu." Kunyangwe ipapo, zvakadaro, aisakwanisa kuzviunza kuti ataure mazwi chaiko, achitamba akaakomberedza panzvimbo.

Unogona kuverenga tsamba dzizere uye nekuenderera mberi nekukurukurirana na KUCHADZA PANO. Whitman akadaro, achitopindura murume mudiki uyu, ndokutanga tsamba yaizoenderera kwemakumi emakore mune imwe nzira kana imwe. WeStoker akaudza shamwari yake Horace Traubel:

Aive mudiki sassy. [A] yekupisa tsamba iyi kumusoro kana kwete — hazvina kumbobvira zvaitika kwandiri kuti ndiite chero chinhu zvachose: chii icho hero ndaive nebasa nazvo kana aive akakodzera kana asina basa? anga ari matsva, achitonhorera, maIrish: ndiwo waive mutengo wakabhadharwa wekubvumidzwa-uye zvakakwana: akatambirwa!

Makore gare gare, Stoker aizove nemukana wekusangana nechidhori chake kakawanda. Nezve Whitman, akanyora kuti:

Ndakamuwanira zvese zvandanga ndarota nezvake, kana zvandaishuwira maari: ane pfungwa dzakakura, akatarisisa-anotaridzika, anoshivirira kusvika pekupedzisira degree; kunzwira tsitsi; kunzwisisa nenjere yaitaridzika kupfuura munhu.

Ratidza B: Sir Henry Irving

Pinda wechipiri mukuru pesvedzero muhupenyu hwaStoker

Muna 1878, Stoker akapihwa basa sekambani uye maneja webhizinesi weLyceum Theatre yaive uye yaishandiswa neveIreland- uye vamwe vangati mutambi ane mukurumbira pasi rose, Sir Henry Irving. Akashinga, akakura kupfuura hupenyu murume akada kutariswa nevaya vakamukomberedza, yakanga isiri nguva zvachose iye asati atorawo nzvimbo yepamusoro muhupenyu hwaStoker. Akaunza Stoker munharaunda yeLondon, ndokumuisa muchinzvimbo chekusangana nevamwe vanyori vakaita saSir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Kunyangwe paine kumwe kusava nechokwadi kwekuti munyori akazopedzisira afemerura nhoroondo yaDracula –Vlad Tepes kana kuti vampire ngano yeIrish Abhartach - zvakabvumiranwa pese pese kuti munyori akaisa tsananguro yemunhu paIrving pamwe nehumwe murume zvimwe… zvine simba… hunhu hunhu.

Mune pepa ra2002 reAmerican Historical Review rakanzi "" Buffalo Bill Inosangana Dracula: William F. Cody, Bram Stoker, neFrontiers of Racial Decay, " munyori wenhoroondo Louis Warren akanyora:

Tsananguro dzakawanda dzaStoker dzaIrving dzinoenderana zvakanyanya nekupa kwake kwekunyepedzera kuverenga kwakarondedzerwa panguva iyoyo nezve kufanana. … Asi Bram Stoker akaisawo mukati kutya uye ruvengo urwo waanoshandira akafuridzira maari, zvichivaita hwaro hwenhema dzake.

Muna 1906, gore mushure mekufa kwaIrving, Stoker akaburitsa mavhoriyamu maviri ehupenyu hwemurume ane zita Zviyeuchidzo zveMunhu zvaHenry Irving.

Izvo zvakakosha kuti uzive kuti, kunyangwe hazvo aishandiswa nemitambo yemitambo kweanosvika makore makumi maviri nemanomwe, iye akangotanga kutora zvinyorwa kutanga Dracula munenge muna 1890 kana zvakadaro. Uye angave ari murume wechitatu, uyo pakupedzisira anoita kunge akakurudzira munyori kuisa peni papepa kuti atange epic tale.

Ratidza C: Oscar Wilde

Sezvineiwo, gore rimwe chete iro Stoker akatanga kushandira Irving kuLyceum Theatre, akaroorawo Florence Balcombe, runako rwakakurumbira uye mukadzi akambobatana naye Oscar Wilde.

Stoker aiziva Wilde kubva pamakore avo kuyunivhesiti, uye akange atokurudzira mumwe wake weIrishman kuti ave nhengo yesangano rePhilosophical Society. Muchokwadi, varume vaviri vaive nehukama hunopfuurira, hwepedyo, uye pamwezve, kwemakumi maviri emakore, uye nzvimbo pakati pavo yakatanga kukura chete pashure Wilde akasungwa pasi peSodomy Mitemo yenguva iyoyo.

Mune chinyorwa chake "'Chikara Chemusango Chakanditora': Iyo Homoerotic Nhoroondo yeDracula," Talia Schaffer ane izvi zvekutaura:

Stoker akachenjerera kudzima zita raWilde kubva mune zvese zvinyorwa zvake zvakaburitswa (uye zvisina kuburitswa) zvinopa muverengi pfungwa yekuti Stoker aive mumhepo asingazive nezvekuvapo kwaWilde. Hapana chingave chinopfuura ichi kubva pachokwadi… eroki dzeSitaki dzinogona kuverengwa pasina kuomerwa kukuru; ivo vanoshandisa inozivikanwa kodhi iyo yaive, pamwe, yakagadzirirwa kuputswa. Mune zvinyorwa zvisingabvumirwe nezveWilde, Stoker akatsimbirira maburi apo zita raWilde rinofanira kuoneka nemazwi akadai se "degeneracy," "reticence," "discretion," uye mareferenzi ekusungwa kwemapurisa kwevanyori. Dracula inoongorora kutya uye kushushikana kwaStoker semurume akavharana ngochani panguva yekutongwa kwaOscar Wilde.- Schaffer, Talia. "" Chido Chemusango Chakandibata ": Iyo Homoerotic Nhoroondo yeDracula." ELH 61, kwete. 2 (1994): 381-425. Yakasvika munaJune 9, 2021.

Muchokwadi, paive mukati memwedzi mumwe wekusungwa kwaWilde uko Stoker akatotanga kunyora Dracula. Hukama uhu hunogara huchifadza kune vadzidzi vazhinji vakachera munhoroondo yevanyori vaviri nemabasa avo akaburitswa.

Kune rimwe divi, iwe unaWilde, uyo akanyora inoverengeka nezvemunhu asingafi akararama hupenyu hwake pachena, mhedzisiro yakatongwa, uye akatora chinzvimbo mune zvese zvido zvehumhondi zvaaigona. Akanga ari jongwe rakanakisa-rekufamba-famba uyo akadhonza maziso ese kwaari ndokurimbundira.

Kune rimwe, iwe une Stoker, uyo akanyorawo inoverengeka nezve isingafi. Nekudaro, kusafa kwaStoker kwakamanikidzwa kurarama husiku, hwakavanzwa mumumvuri, utachiona hwaidyisa vamwe uye pakupedzisira hwakaurayiwa nekuda kwazvo.

Izvo hazvitore kusvetuka chaiko kwekufungidzira zvachose kuona izvi zvisikwa zviviri sekumiririra kwavo kwevanyori. Wilde akasungwa, akaiswa mutirongo, uye akazopedzisira atapwa nekuda kwehunhu hwake. Stoker anga ari mune yakasimba - kana yakanyanya kuchena - muchato uyo anoenderera mberi achiti "sodomites" inofanirwa kudzingwa kubva kumahombekombe eGreat Britain zvakanyanya sevazhinji vezvematongerwo enyika vakavharirwa nhasi vanotsoropodza nharaunda yeLBGTQ +, kuzongobatwa chete bhurugwa pasi pavanofunga kuti hapana ari kutarisa.

Zvakare kujekesa kucherechedza kuti vese Wilde naStoker vakafa nekuda kwematambudziko kubva ku syphilis, yakajairika STD muVictorian London iyo neimwe nzira inonzwa kunge yakawanda mukutarisa hukama hwavo nemumwe, asi izvo hazvisi pano kana apo.

Mubhuku rake rinonzi, Chinhu chiri muRopa: Iyo Isingazivikanwe Nyaya yaBram Stoker, Murume Akanyora Dracula, David J. Skal anoti iyo specter yeWilde inogona kuwanikwa pamapeji ese e Dracula, zvakanyanya kufanana neyakajeka kumeso kwaWilde kwakarembera pamusoro pehupenyu hwaStoker. Wilde aive mumvuri waStoker's. Akanga ari doppelganger wake uyo akatsunga kuita izvo izvo murume iyeye aisagona kana zvaisazoita.

Bram Stoker's Dracula

Dracula Yekutanga Edition Bram Stoker

Stoker yemukati kurwira kuri pane ese peji re Dracula. Kuedza kwake kuyananisa chishuwo uye kuzivikanwa uye manzwiro ekusava nechokwadi uye hongu, dzimwe nguva kuzvishora kwakaiswa paari uye kudzidziswa kwaari nenharaunda yakaita kuti kusagadzikana kusabvumirwe nemutemo kwakavezwa mundima yega yega.

Mumwe haafanire kupa bhuku kuverenga kwequeer kuti riwane. Kune akatiwandei nguva mukati meiyo nyaya uko kusanyara, kumwe, uye fungidziro inosvetuka kubva papeji.

Funga nezve nzvimbo yevampire pamusoro peHarker apo Varoora vanosvika kwaari. Anofukidza munhu nemuviri wake, achireva kwaari. Kana pamwe hukama hwakakura uye hwekuzviisa pasi pakati paDracula naRenfield unoona wekupedzisira achityairwa nechishuwo chake chekushandira?

Icho chaicho chiito chekudyisa vampiric, kuburitsa ropa rehupenyu kuburikidza nekurumwa kunotora nzvimbo yekupinda pabonde zvakanyanya zvekuti kunyangwe mune yekutanga firimu magadzirirwo enoveli, vatungamiriri nevanyori vakarairwa kuti iyo Count ingangoruma vakadzi kuti vabvise chero zano reungochani kana bondexuality.

Muchokwadi, panguva yeHays Code nguva, nzira chete yavaigona kuenda nayo kusanganisira chero chinhu cherudzi irworwo yaive nekuda kwekuti Dracula ndiye aive akaipa uye akafanirwa kufa. Kunyangwe ipapo inogona kunge isinganyorwe kodhi uye ikakurudzirwa, asi haina kuzoratidzwa

Izvi, ehe, zvakatungamira kuzvizvarwa zvese zvevanoenda kumafirimu vasina kumbobvira vaverenga iyo yekutanga sosi yezvinyorwa uye vangangodaro vasina kumboona iyo yakasarudzika queerness Dracula. Ivo ndivo vanhu vanouya muzvikamu zvemashoko kana zvinyorwa zvakaita seizvi zvaburitswa uye vachizvidza vanyori, vachiti takaita izvi zvirimo, uye kuti tiri kungoedza kumanikidza madingindira eLGBTQ + kwaasipo.

Muchokwadi, ndosaka ndisina kutaura nezvemafirimu kusvika zvino. Iyi nhaurirano yakadzika midzi murunyorwa rwekutanga uye mumurume akazvigadzira: murume ainyatsoita bondexual uye angangoita ngochani, munyori akarwira kuzivikanwa uye chishuwo uyo akagadzira nyaya isingafe semusoro wayo, uye a murume uyo kuzvipira kweupenyu hwake kune vamwe varume muhupenyu hwake kwakangounzwa chete mumakore makumi matatu apfuura kana zvakadaro.

Yekupedzisira Summation

Kune pasina kupokana vanhu vakamira kuverenga ichi chinyorwa mushure mekutanga kwendima kana maviri- vamwe havana kana kuzviita kupfuura musoro wenyaya. Kune avo vakashingirira, ini pakutanga ndinoti maita basa. Ini chechipiri ndinokukumbira kuti utarise maitiro ako kune urwu ruzivo usati wapindura.

Funga usati wadanidzira, "Ndiani ane hanya?" Ehe, iwe unogona kunge usina hanya. Ehezve, ruzivo urwu harungareve chinhu kwauri zvachose. Ushingi hwako hwekufunga izvo zvinoreva kuti ruzivo harubatsiri kune wese munhu wepanyika, zvakare.

Kuva chikamu chemunharaunda yakasarudzika kazhinji zvinoreva kuti nhoroondo dzedu dzinogona kunge dzakaparadzwa kana kurambwa kwatiri. Vanhu vasina nhoroondo havaite senge vanhu zvachose. Isu tinodzorwa nekushaikwa kwedu kweruzivo pamusoro pedu pachedu, uye avo vasiri munharaunda vanogona kunyepedzera kunge tiri vamwe vatsauko patsva mune zvakasikwa zvakavezwa muma1970.

Nekudaro, zvinogona kunge zvisina zvazvinoreva kwauri, asi zvinonyanya kureva chimwe chinhu kunhengo dzenharaunda yeGBBTQ + vanovhundutsawo vateveri kuziva kuti imwe yeanonyanyisa kutyisa enganonyorwa yenguva dzese yakanyorwa nemurume akagovana kutambura kwedu uye kurwa nekuzivikanwa kwake nenzira iyo vazhinji vedu tine.

Izvo zvine hunhu muna 2021, uye ndiyo hurukuro Huror Pride Mwedzi icharamba ichikurudzira.

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